US History Review

Question Answer
1. What was the Virginia company and what was its purpose? It was a joint stock company founded by some British men. The purpose was to establish a colony in America and to make money.
2. What role did tobacco play in the Virginia Company? It became the basis for Virginia's economy and ultimately helped start slavery in the colonies.
3. How did the Virginia colonists interact with the Natives in the area? They took their land and forced them to move west. As a whole their relationship was very rocky at best.
4. What was the House of Burgesses? The legislature and in Virginia and the first representative government in the Americas.
5. What was Bacon's Rebellion? Nathaniel Bacon gathered an army when some farmers in Western Virginia were attacked by Indians. The governor labeled him as a traitor for doing this and Bacon turned his army on Jamestown. They burned down Jamestown.
6. What factors led to the development of slavery in the colonies? The establishment of tobacco industry created a need for workers. The plantation owners eventually turned to slaves to fill the role.
7.Why did many settlers come to New England? To escape religious persecution in England
8.Who was John Winthrop and what were his beliefs? Founder of the Massachusetts Bay colony. He believed that the Puritan community should be well ordered so they would have a well ordered colony. He saw the Puritan communities as a "City upon the hill."
9.What was King Phillip's war? King Phillip (Metacom)and his Indians attacked settlers in an attempt to run the English out of America. They did a lot of damage until some of the Indians switched sides and helped the English.
10.What was the half way covenant? It provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members.
11.Who were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson? People who lived in Massachusetts and were kicked out for having beliefs that were different from the Puritans.
12.Discuss the founding of Rhode Island. Roger Williams was kicked out of Massachusetts and later founded Rhode Island. The colony was set up based on the idea of religious freedom
13.What were the Salem Witch Trials? Several girls in Salem, Massachusetts claimed the devil had taken control of them. They accused several people of being witches and a mass hysteria broke out. 20 people were executed.
14.List the characteristics of the middle colonies. The middle colonies all allowed religious freedom. Their economies were based around the farming of grains and trade. There were merchants in towns as well.
15.Describe New Amsterdam and the power shift that resulted in New York. New Amsterdam was originally settled by the Dutch. They made money off fur trade. The English took it over and renamed it New York.
16.Describe the Pennsylvania Settlement. Settled by William Penn as a home for the Quakers. It allowed religious freedom and made its money off trade and farming.
17.Why did the French settle in Quebec? The French settled there because they could establish the fur trade in that region.
18.Define mercantilism. Describe the role of the colonies and the mother country. Mercantilism is an economic system that says you should get as much gold and silver as possible. The colonies role was to provide raw materials and me a market for England's finished goods
19.Describe the Middle Passage It was the trip from Africa to the Americas for the slaves. Between 10-14% died on the middle passage.
20.How did Benjamin Franklin illustrate the ideas of social mobility and individualism? He started off from moderate beginnings made himself into an important political figure. He made his money as a printer and later as an inventor.
21.What was the Great Awakening? It was a series of revivals across the colonies that were created in an effort to get people focused back on God.
22.What were the causes and effects of the French & Indian War? The causes were: Britain and France had a previous rivalry. The two countries were fighting over land in the Ohio River Valley. The effects were: England won and France had to give up all their land east of the Mississippi.
23.What was the Proclamation of 1763? It said that the colonists couldn't go past the Appalachian Mts. The colonists ignored it for the most part.
24.What measures did the British take to subdue the colonists following the French & Indian War? They passed the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Intolerable Acts, and Quartering Act in an effort to make the colonies pay back some of the war debt Britain had.
25.What was the significance of Thomas Paine's Common Sense? It was a pamphlet that was passed around and it tried to convince people to break away from Britain.
26.Who was John Locke and what influence did he have on the American Revolution? He was and Enlightenment thinker. His ideas on personal rights and the role of the government were used in the Declaration of Independence.
27.Who was given the task of writing the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
28.Why did the French assist the colonists in the Revolutionary War? They hated the English and wanted to get back at them from their loss in the French & Indian War. Helping the colonists allowed them to punish England.
29.Who was the Marquis de Lafayette? He was a French military officer who helped out the colonists in the revolution.
30.Describe the military leadership of George Washington. Tough leader who was able to win battles even though his troops were not well trained and lacked resources.
31.Why was Washington's crossing of the Delaware so significant? It was done in the dead of winter when people didn't normally fight. The troops had to brave tough conditions and surprised the Hessians at Trenton.
32.What was the significance of Valley Forge? The soldiers spent the whole winter in harsh conditions with very little supplies. It showed how determined they were to be free from Britain.
33.What happened at Yorktown? It is where Cornwallis surrendered to Washington and the Revolution ended.
34.Who was Cornwallis? He was the leader of the British troops during the revolution.
35.Discuss the provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783. America became and independent country, Britain removed all troops from the US, the US now controlled everything to the Mississippi River in the West and the Great Lakes to the north
36.What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? Weak national government, no national military, no national economic policies, no national court system
37.What was Shay's rebellion? It was a rebellion led by poor farmers in Massachusetts who were upset over being taxed so heavily. The rebellion convinced Americans they needed a stronger national government.
38.Who were the Federalists and what were their beliefs? They were generally upper class men from the north who wanted a stronger national government. They supported the constitution but preferred a loose interpretation of it.
39.Who were the Antifederalists and what were their beliefs? Were middle and lower class people from the South. They wanted more power to be with the states. They favored a strict interpretation of the constitution.
40.What role did the Federalist papers play in the ratification of the constitution? They were written by Federalists in an attempt to sway people into backing the constitution
41.What role did Alexander Hamilton play at the Constitutional Convention? Hamilton was a Federalist so he wanted the Constitution to insure the national government was very strong.
42.What role did James Madison play in the Constitutional Convention? Madison was a Federalist who attended all the meetings and took detailed notes. He is often referred to as the "Father of the Constitution."
43.What was the Great Compromise? It combined the ideas of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey plan. It said the senate would get equal representation from all states while the House of Representatives would be based on population.
44.What is the idea of the "separation of powers?" It is the idea that you should have different branches of government so that no branch gets to powerful.
45.How was slavery addressed in the Constitution? They came up with the 3/5 compromise which stated that that a state could count 3/5 of their state's slaves towards their population total
46.What is the function of the Bill of Rights in the lives of American citizens? It was put into the Constitution to appease the Anti-Federalists. Its role is to plainly spell out what rights citizens in the US have.
47.What precedents did George Washington set? He established what to call the president, he selected the first cabinet members. He served two terms.
48.What was the significance of Washington's farewell address? He pointed out two key items in his speech: 1) the need for the US to stay neutral 2)He warned against having political parties
49.What were the major events of John Adam's presidency? XYZ affair, Alien & sedition act
50.What was the Whiskey Rebellion? Some farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against the taxes being placed whiskey. Hamilton was behind the tax and it angered middle and lower class farmers
51.What were the first political parties and how did they develop? The first political parties were the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans. The developed over differing views of the Constitution and other key issues.
52.What was the Northwest Ordinance? It established a process by which territories in the West could become states. As these places became states more people migrated there and bought land for cheap prices.
53.What was the Louisiana Purchase? We sent representatives to France to buy New Orleans for $10 million. Napoleon needed money to finance his wars in Europe so he sold all of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. It doubles the size of the US.
54.Discuss the Lewis and Clark expedition. Lewis and Clark were hired to explore the new lands purchased in the Louisiana Territory and to map out everything as they went along. They looked for routes to the Pacific, made relations with Indians, and looked for resources.
55.Discuss the Erie Canal. It was built by the state of New York in 1825. It connects the Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Ocean.
56.What is Manifest Destiny? It was the idea that the US had the right to expand its borders. When they decided to move West they ran into conflict with the Indians.
57.What were the major causes and effects of the War of 1812? The US thought that Britain was behind the Indians attacking settlers. They also didn't like how the British were stopping US ships and "impressing" their people. The US won the war and Britain gave up all their lands in America.
58.How did America emerge from the war with a greater sense of pride and national identity? The war showed that America was willing to fight for their country and that they could stand up to bigger powers like Britain. The war helped unite the American people.
59.What was the Monroe Doctrine and what was its significance? It stated that America would not interfere with Europe’s business. European countries could keep their claims in North America, but they would not be allowed to make any future claims. This doctrine established our foreign policy for many years.
60.How did Eli Whitney's inventions of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts revolutionize the country? The interchangeable parts allowed things to be mass produced for a cheaper price. The cotton gin made cotton production easier and thus cotton remained “king” in the South. It also helped keep slavery going strong in the South.
61.What was the Jacksonian Democracy? It was the term given to the new political party led by Andrew Jackson. The democrats favored less government and more power to the states. Suffrage expanded when more states allowed all white males to vote and not just the ones who owned property.
62.In what ways did slavery divide the country? The South relied on the slaves as cheap labor for their farms and plantations. The North saw slavery as morally wrong. It created problems as new states were admitted to the US. The debate was which states would be slave holding
63.What was Nat Turner's Rebellion? It was a rebellion led by a slave named Nat Turner. Turner and his group attacked several plantation killing nearly 50 people. Turner and his group were eventually killed for leading the rebellion.
64.Who was John C Calhoun and what was the nullification crisis? John C. Calhoun was Vice President and later congressman. He led South Carolina’s fight against the Tariff of 1828. South Carolina didn’t like the Tariff and threatened to secede from the US over it.
65.What was the temperance movement? It was the movement to end alcohol consumption. The movement didn’t stop alcohol consumption but it did lower the amount that Americans were drinking.
66.Discuss the abolitionist movement. It was the movement to end slavery. The movement was started by African Americans in the late 1700’s but became big in the 1800’s. White abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison played a large role in the success of the movement.
67.Discuss the reform of public schools. People stared calling for public school reform in the early 1800’s. This movement was led by people like Horace Mann and mainly occurred in the North. The schools were mainly for white males. A few girls and freed slaves did get educated.
68.Discuss the effort to gain women's suffrage rights. It was the movement to get women more rights. Most women wanted to have more rights but they also wanted to change things from inside the home. Elizabeth Cady Stanton helped start the Seneca Falls Convention.
69.What was the Missouri Compromise? It stated that Missouri would be added as a slave state and Maine would be admitted as a free state. It stated that any new states north of the 36-30 latitude line would be free. It did not address what would happen to “territories.”
70.What was the Compromise of 1850? Admitted California as a free state. New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves on whether or not to have slavery. The Fugitive Slave law was part of this as well.
71.Discuss the nullification crisis. John C Calhoun argued on behalf of South Carolina that the southern states had the right to leave the Union if it were necessary for their own protection.
72.Discuss the causes and effects of the Mexican War. The US annexed Texas and this made Mexico mad. The two countries also disagreed over what the southern boundary of Texas would be. The results were that we gained California and New Mexico.
73.What was the Wilmot Proviso? It stated that slavery would not be allowed in any of the new areas acquired from Mexico. It was never passed in Congress.
74.What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? The Kansas-Nebraska act stated that the two areas had popular sovereignty and would decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery.
75.What was the significance of the Dred Scott decision? It stated that slaves were not citizens and thus couldn’t sue. Slaves couldn’t win their freedom just by living in a free state. The Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional and all territories were open to slavery.
76.What was John Brown's raid? He led a raid on a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. His goal was to take over the arsenal and arm the slaves with weapons so they could lead a revolt. He was caught and eventually hanged for his role in the raid.
77.Discuss Lincoln's first & second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg address. Lincoln’s primary goal throughout most of the war was to preserve the union at all costs. He really hits home on this in the Gettysburg address.
78.Why did Lincoln suspend the Habeas Corpus during the Civil War? He did this to keep the border states from becoming part of the confederacy. He put people in prison who spoke out against his policies and this showed how serious he was about his cause.
79. Importance of Fort Sumter, First, Bull Run, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Battle for Atlanta, and Appomattox Courthouse. First Battle of the Civil War, First real fighting in the war, Bloodiest single day of the war, Union army lays siege to the city and starves out the Confederate soldiers, Bloodiest battle of the war and was fought over three days, Site of where Lee
80. Importance of Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Jefferson Davis, and William T. Sherman. Head of the Union forces, Head of the Confederate forces, Lee’s right hand man, Led the march through the Georgia destroying everything in his path, President of the Confederate States of America
81.What was the significance on the Emancipation Proclamation? The emancipation proclamation declared all slaves in the southern states were to be set free. The Confederate states ignored it and thus it had little effect. The one thing it did do was to encourage slaves to try and escape to join the Union army.
82.Compare the North and South's resources during the civil war. The North’s economy was based on industry while the South’s economy was based on agriculture. The North had every possible advantage. The South did have better military leaders and a greater will to win
83.Compare Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Reconstruction. Presidential Reconstruction was seen as very lenient toward the South. The President’s main goal was to get the South back into the Union. The Radicals saw the main goal of Reconstruction to be equality for African Americans.
84.Discuss the efforts to redistribute land in the South among former slaves. There were some efforts in the South to redistribute land to the former slaves, but overall there was never any real effort made by the national government to do this.
85.What was the Freedman's Bureau? The Freedman’s Bureau was set up to help freed slaves get on their feet. It provided them with money, clothes, food, etc to help them get a fresh start.
86.What were the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments? The 13-15th amendments are significant because they granted African Americans certain political rights. The 13th amendment ended slavery, the 14th gave them citizenship, and the 15th gave them the right to vote.
87.What were the black codes? The Black codes were put in place to restrict rights that African Americans earned during Reconstruction. Most centered around keeping African Americans from voting.
88.What was the KKK? The KKK was a white supremacist group that arose during Reconstruction. Its goal was to frighten and terrorize African Americans
89.Discuss Andrew Johnson's impeachment. Andrew Johnson was brought up on impeachment charges because of his firing practices. The House found Johnson’s firing of his Secretary of War was unconstitutional and impeached him. He fell one vote short of being removed from office.
90.What kind of impact did the growth of railroads have on other industries? Railroads stimulated the economy by creating jobs and boosting other industries. The railroads opened up new markets for businesses and made shipping things faster and cheaper.
91.How did railroads effect western development? The transcontinental railroad connected the east with the west. It was built by immigrant workers such as the Mexicans and Chinese. They provided a cheap and fast way for people to travel and visit the western part of the country.
92.Who was John D Rockefeller? John D Rockefeller owned Standard Oil. It was the largest oil company in the US during the late 1800’s. Rockefeller controlled all the factors of production related to his oil company. There were laws made to control monopolies such as Standard Oil.
93.What did Thomas Edison invent? Edison invented the light bulb and later worked on building power plants to supply electricity.
94.What was the American Federation of Labor? It was a national labor union formed by Samuel Gompers in 1886. It was a craft union that organized workers that were part of a specific craft.
95.Who was Samuel Gompers? He was the head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He worked to improve workers wages and working conditions. He urged his members to use strikes and boycotts to negotiate.
96.What was the Pullman Strike of 1894? Pullman railroad car workers went on strike for better wages. Their strike disrupted railroad traffic and the delivery of mail. The attorney general ruled in favor of Pullman. The strike set the precedent that the government would back the factory owners.
97.Discuss the impact that westward movement had on Native Americans. As more and more people moved west it caused friction with the Native Americans. The Native Americans were forced off their land and were moved to less desirable land. The were several confrontations with the Native Americans such as Wounded Knee.
98.What was Ellis Island? Ellis Island was located in the harbor of New York. Immigrants from Europe all came through Ellis Island on their way to America.
99.How did immigration patterns changes over time in the US? In the mid to late 1800’s the immigrants to the US came mainly from the North and Western parts of Europe. By 1890 there was a shift in where the immigrants came from. They started coming from Southern and Eastern Europe.
100.Where did most immigrants live once they entered the US? Immigrants primarily stayed in the North and settled in the large urban areas. These immigrants formed their own little communities inside the large cities where they would be surrounded by people that shared their same culture

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