Unit 2 S.S. European Explorers and the Slave Trade

Question Answer
Conquistador a conquerer, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian Civilization of Mexico, Central America, or Peru
cultural diversity a society where groups of people with different customs, beliefs, arts, and way of life live together
culture the beliefs, customs, arts, way of life of a particular society, group, place, or time
demographics data about population characteristics
encomienda a grant by the Spanish King under which a Spanish soldier or colonist was granted a piece of land or a village together with its Native American population
ethnic group a group sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, or environment before exploration by Europeans
immune cannot be affected by disease
indigenous population people already living in a particular region or environment before exploration by Europeans
Ladinos a mix of mestizos and Spanish peoples
Mestizos people of mixed Native American and European, usually Spanish and Portuguese, ancestry
Middle Passage the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas
New World North America, Mesoamerica, the Caribbean,and South America
Northwest Passage a route by sea between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
pandemic a disease occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting a very high number of people
polytheism belief in many gods
slavery a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work
turning point a moment when the course of events is changed or a significant change occurs
ethnic defined by the food, language, and cultural traditions of a particular group making it different and unique from others
What was the population before the Spanish conquest? Indigenous people- Aztecs
What was the geographic location before the Spanish conquest? Central MexicoCapital: Tenochtitlan
What was the language before the Spanish conquest? Pictorial language – glyphsSpoken Language – Nahuatlan
What was the religion before the Spanish conquest? PoytheisticImpersonalization of deities which ended in human sacrifices
What was the technological achievements before the Spanish conquest? 365 day calendar which followed the agricultural yearAgricultutal achievements – terracing, chinampassystems of roads, and canalsarchitecture and engineering of temples
What was the population after the Spanish conquest? Indigenous people – AztecsLadinos
What was the geographic location after the Spanish conquest? Cortes destroyed Tenochtitlan and rebuilt a Spanish city now known as Mexico City
What was the language after the Spanish conquest? SpanishNative people were banned from learning to read and write in Spanish
What was the religion after the Spanish conquest? Cortes banned human sacrificesconverted to christianity by missionaries
What were the technological achievements after the Spanish Conquest? Lack of achievementsforced to work in an encomienda system
What year was the Spanish conquest? 1519
Who conquered the Aztecs? Hernan Cortes
What are items the Europeans introduced to the Native Americans? Livestock, diseases, grains, citrus fruits, bananas, sugar cane, honey bees, grapes, onions, olives, turnips, coffee beans, peaches, pears
What are items the Native Americans introduced to the Europeans? Squash, pumpkins, turkeys, peanuts, potatoes, tomatoes, maize, sweet potatoes, peppers, tobacco, pineapples, cacao , beans, vanilla
Between which continents did the Columbian exchange of people, goods, and other items take place? Europe and Africa to North America
When did the Columbian Exchange take place? 1492 after Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas
Besides food and animals, what dreadful thing was brought to the Americas by the Europeans? Diseases
How were the Native Americans affected by the diseases brought over by the Europeans? Many of the Native Americans died
British Colonies in 1750 Ruperts Land, Thirteen Colonies, New Foundling
Danish Colonies in 1750 Greenland
Dutch Colonies in 1750 Dutch Guiania
French Colonies in 1750 North America, Louisiana, New France
Portugese Colonies in 1750 South America, Brazil
Russian Colonies in 1750 Alaska
Spanish Colonies in 1750 New Spain, New Granada, Peru, La Plata

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