Reproduction animal science

Term Definition
accessory sex glands group of organs that add volume and nutrients to sperm. organs include ampullae, seminal vesicles, prostrate and bulbourethral glands
Ai introduction of semen into the vagina or uterus by mechanical or instrumental means rather than by sexual intercourse,
anestrous time period when female does not cycle or exhibit estrus,
artificial insemintation introduction of semen into the vagina or uterus by mechanical or instrumental means rather than by sexual intercourse.
barren describes a female that is not capable of producing offspring
bladder muscular elastic organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination
breeding season time period when females are exposed to males
caruncle structures on ruminant uterus where attachment to placenta occurs to facilitate transfer of nutrients
castration surgical excision of one or both testicle or ovaries, performed most frequently to reduce the production of gametes and secretion of certain hormones
cervix a short thick tube of smooth muscle around a narrow channel that controls access to the uterus and serves as a passage way for sperm and the fetus
CL yellow, progesterone- secreting mass of cells that form from an ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg.
cloaca common passage area for reproductive, urinary, and digestive systems
corpus luteum yellow, progesterone- secreting mass of cells that forms from an ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg
cotyledon area of the placenta that forms an attachment with uterine lining to facilitate transfer of nutrients
cryptorchidism developmental defect where one or both testicle(s) do not descend from body into scrotum
dystocia abnormal or difficult delivery of new born
ejaculation process of pushing semen out of ampulla, thru urethra, into female tract
embro transfer process where female is super ovulated , bred and several embryos are collected and transferred to other females to carry zygotes to term
embryo organism in the early state of development generally from time of implantation until the development of the major body structures.
endocrine gland ductless glands that contain cells that produce hormones and secrete these directly into bloodstream
epididymis long,narrow, convoluted tube, that lies on the posterior aspect of each testicle, connecting it to the vas deferens
estrogen steroid hormones produced by the ovaries and responsible for promoting estrus and the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.
estrous cycle recurring physiologic changes of non-pregnant female that are induced and controlled by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females
estrus state of sexual excitability during which the female will accept the male and is capable of conceiving
estrus synchronization manipulating estrous cycle so that a group of females express estrus or heat at approximately the same time
ET process where female is super ovulated, bred and several embryos are collected and transferred to other females to carry zygotes to term
Fallopian tube tubes that collect the ovum from ovary. terminates at uterine horn
feedback mechanism method of control by which certain circulating levels of a hormone affect subsequent secretion of that hormone or another hormone
female reproductive tract group of female organs hat are involved partially or completely in fertilization and incubation of new life
fetus unborn young of vertebrates that have a basic structural resemblance to the adult animal
follicle stimulating hormone gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates the cells in male mammals that form sperm
freemartin sterile or barren heifer born twin to bull
frozen embryo embryos are collected & frozen for later placement
FSH gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates the cells in male mammals that form sperm
Gestation period of development of embryo/ fetus in the uterus of mammals from conception until parturition
gonad organ that produces gametes, especially a testis or an ovary
gonadotropic hormone hormone that target the gonads (ovary and testicle)
hormone chemicals secreted by endocrine gland that has an specific effect on another organ(s) in other parts of the body, thus serve as chemical messengers to control specific action within the body
implantation process where embryo forms attachment to uterus/ uterine horn
infundibulum section of chicken oviduct that collects yolk from ovary.
interstitial cell cell that occurs between the germ cells of the testicle where testosterone production occurs
isthmus section of chicken oviduct that adds shell membrane
lactation process of production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide milk to the feed young; occurs in all female mammals
leydig cell cell that occurs between the germ cells of the testicle where testosterone production occurs
LH gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by the anterior pitu
luteinizing hormone gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
magnum section of chicken oviduct that secretes thick albumen
male reproductive tract group of organs that are involved production and delivery of semen
melatonin hormone produced by pineal gland whose secretion is regulated by photoperiod
negative feedback circulating level of hormone result in decrease release of that hormone or stop release of another hormone
open describes non-pregnant female
ovary primary reproductive organ(s) of female. contains female germ cells, produces female gametes, and produces eestrogen
oviduct tubes that collect the ovum from ovary. terminates a uterine horn
ovulation process by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and releases an ovum
parturition process of delivering the fetus and placenta from the uterus thru the vagina to the outside world.
penis male organ of copulation in higher vertebrates, also used for urine excretion in man mammals
placenta organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake,waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mothers blood supply.
positive feedback circulating level of a hormone results in additional release of that hormone or release of another hormone
postpartum time period after birth
poultry oviduct segmented organ in poultry that collects yolk from ovary & forms complete egg
poultry uterus section of the chicken oviduct that adds thin white albumen, the shell, and shell pigment
poultry vagin section of the chicken oviduct that connects uterus to cloaca
pregnancy carrying of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, inside the reproductive tract
prepartum time period before birth
progesterone steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and by the placenta, that acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the zygote, to maintain pregnancy, and to promote development of the mammary glands
puberty stage in the development marked by the development of secondary sex characteristics and the point where females initiate their first estrus and males produce sperm
reproduction biological processes that are involced with the creation of new life
scrotum external sac of skin that encloses the testes that function to keeps the testes at the optimal temperature for producing sperm
semen fluid discharged at ejaculation of male that contains sperm and accessory sex gland fluids
seminiferous tubles long convoluted tubules in the testis which are the sites where spermatozoa mature
service act of mating or breeding
settle to become pregnant or to conceive
sexed semen process where sperm is separated into male and female components
shor-day breeders animals that start cycling as day length gets shorter
super ovulation process of causing a female to ovulate multiple ova
testicle/ testis primary reproductive organ(s) of male. contains male germ cells, produces male gametes, and produces testosterone.
testosterone steroid hormone produced by testis and is responsible for sperm development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics.
timed ai method of artificial insemination where females are synchronized and bred based on time instead of heat detection
urethra tube that connects the urinary bladder to the vagina or penis for removal of urine out of the body
uterine horns division of uterus that connect the uterus with an oviduct, giving connection to each ovary
uterus muscular organ that aids in sperm transport and where gestation occurs
vagina elastic muscular canal hat extends from the cervix to the vulva and serves both the urinary and reproducive system
vas deferns duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the urethra
vent terminal end of digestive system, reproductive system & urinary system in poultry
vulva external genital organ of the female mammal
zygote diploid cell resulting from the union of a male and a female gamete. initial cell produced at conception.

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