History test industrial revolution

Question Answer
What was the occupation of most Americans prior to the Industrial Revolution worked on farms
What type of jobs were millions of Americans leaving their farms and moving o cities trying to gain during the industrial Revolution and why left for urban jobs in factories and mines because the new technology made it that not many people needed to work on farms
What discovery allowed for many new inventions during the late 1800s and early 1900s The discovery of electricity allowed for many new inventions
What type of natural resources did the US have in great abundance and why were they so important copper,iron,coal and timber and American companies could obtain these resources easily on American soil
what was the transcontinental railroad a railway that extended from coast to coast that allowed easy travel for goods or people
why was the transcontinental railroad so impactful on industry and business trade and companies were able to expand nationwide
how did this national railroad lead to new settlements out west more job opportunities helped accelerate industiliztaion
what other type of resource was just as important as natural resources?why? Human resourses, the population of the US tripled,allowed for high demands on goods as well as those to work to make these products also more than 17 million immigrants came the US for a better life and jobs
what ere immmigrants looking for when coming to the US better life and jobs
Explain the purpose of the phonograph 1st form of a record player, records sound and plays back
explain the purpose of the telegraph sent messages along wires,morse code
explain the purpose of the telephone allowed for instant communication sound across wires,party lines
explain the purpose of the light bulb provided indoor lighting allowed factories to add night shifts not relying on daylight to work
explain the purpose of the refridgerator kept food longer,food did not have to be sold locally
what is free enterprise a economic system with little or no governmental regulation
what is laissez-faire a theory that stated that the government should no t interfere with the economy other than to protect citizens
what is the role of the government with free enterprise and laissez-faire little government regulation,protect citizens, not interefering with the economy
what is the corportation a organization that was authorized by law to carry on a a activity but treated as if it was a single person
what is a stockholder own corporations through shares of ownership called stock
what is fixed costs costs a company pays even it is not operating
what is operating costs costs incurred when running a company
who is Andrew Carnegie and why is he so important to big business during the industrial revolution A Scottish immigrant started working at 12 in a textile factory and became the superintendent of the pennsylavannia railroad he opened a steel mine an his company bought coal mines, limestond duarries and iron ore fields
what is the Bessemer process and why is it important made high quality steel quickly and cheaply it helped save money and make good quality steel quickly
what is vertical integration saved money and enabled many companies to expand
who is john D Rockefeller and why is he so important in businnes A business leader who pushed for horizontal integration which is buying our competitors in business
what is horizontal integration buying out competitors in business
what were the working conditions for most factory workers like in the Us during the industrial revolution dangerous, machines lacked safety devices,long hours and workers had repeditive dull tedious tasks
what was the need for unions during this time in US history with the conditions of little pay long hours dangerous and unhealthy enviroments and no job protection unions arose to get more pay when employers cut it
what type of things did unions push for when protecting their workers rights they pushed for more pay better enviroment conditions, job protection
what is the difference between craft workers and common laborers craft workers had many skills and received decent wages were as common laborers had few skills and received lower wages
why were employers usually opposed to unions forming they felt that they were a conspiracy against them and interfeird with property rights
how did employers try to stop the development of unions in their companies they had them sign that they would not join hired detectives and hire replacement employees
why was it a struggle to start a union for most workers The confrontations with business owners and government led to violence and bloodshed
what was the importance of the Great Railroad Strike workers walked off the job and blocked the tracks, involved 80,000 railway workers and affected 2/3 of the national railways,100 people died and $10 million in railroad property destroyed
what was the importance of the homestead strike steel workers wage cut by 20% several dead and dozens injured lasted 4 months
who were the knights of labor Favored arbitrations, a third party helps workers and employeers reach an agreement before striking took place
what is arbitration a third party that helped workers and employers reach an agreement before striking took place
what was the importance of the Pullman strike workers refused to handle Pullman cars and railroads ground to a near halt, railcars
what was the AFL American Ferderation of Labor-focused on promoting interest and skilled workers
what was IWW and why did this group not have many members Industrial workers of the world- its radical philosophy and controversial strikes
what role did women play in unions during the late 1800s and early 1900s 1/3 of womens workforce is industry, got paid less then men, made minimum wage
what was the reason that the population in the US grew almost 3.5 million form 1860-1900 immigration, job opportunites in the cities and better paying jobs
what type of things did NYC have to offer people when moving there electricity, modern plumbing and entertaiment
why did major cities such as Chicago and NY have to develop mass transit systems congestion,to crowded, population booming, business built up
Why type of transit systems were developed in NY and Chicago during the industrial revolution elevated railroad and subway systems , able cars and trolley cars
who made up the upper class wealthy families, someone who owned a company or business
who made up the middle class People like doctors,lawyers, engineers, mangagers, social workers, architects, teachers
who made up the working class could barley won a home, got jobs nobody wanted that were dangerous and low paying
what was tenement housing and why did many immigrants have to live in such way multifamily apartments many families rented space togeather because of the lack of money
what were some problems with city life during the late 1800s and early 1900s crime, violence, fire, disease, pollution
what is a political machine informal political group designed to gain and keep power
who was William "Boss" tweed Tammany hall, they NYC democratic political machine convicted of fraud charges
why is the time period of 1870-1900 known as the gilded age it might appear to sparkle with expansion of industry and city life but critics pointed to corruption ,poverty and great disparities in wealth between rich and poor
what is the idea of individualism no matter how humble a persons beginning they could rise as high in society as their talents will let them
what is social darwinsim a philosophy that strongly reinforced the idea of indualism or survival of the fitest
why did many churches oppose social darwisim thought it was offensive and was against biblical teachings
what was Andrew carnegies apporoach to social darwinism though the wealthy should use their fortunes to create the conditions that would help people help themselves
what attempts were made by churches to help the poor salvation army created, churches built gyms, pronded social programs and child care to help poor
what happened to the number of public schools during this time and what did this do for immigrants they increased dramatically
what are reasons immigrants were leaving their mother countries "push factors" war, oppression, religious persecution, lack of money/jobs
what did American have to offer americans "pull factors" better paying jobs, money, better life, freedoms
what was steerage and why did most immigrants travel in steerage open, cheapest ticket, 3rd class ticket, lacked food,slepping place, it was unsanitary, dirty , you were exposed to out door conditons on the lower deck, people traveled in steerage because they did not have enough money to travel any higher
what was Ellis Island the island where all the immigrants went to before they went into the US and they went through all the tests before they could enter the US
why types of things happened to immigrants on ellis island They were checked fro pregnancy or illnesses that could spread, they were tested for many things and when something alarmed the officals they chalked that person for further investigation, some were sent back
what type of jobs did most immigrants work they got the jobs nobody wanted, dangerous , gross and not the highest paying
where did many immigrants live and why in tentement housing because they could not pay for anything more
what were children thaught in public schools during this time and what did it do to immigrants how to read and write(English) and American History and culture and this helped immigrants learn alot

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