chapter 8 and 9

Question Answer
Chain of command Official hierarchy of authority that dictates who is in charge of whom within the organization.
Hierarchy The levels of management within a business organization, from the lowest to the highest.
Departmentalization Process of organizing employees into groups or units to accomplish specific organizational goals.
Span of control The number of subordinates under the direct control of a manager or supervisor.
Matrix organization Organizational structure that combines employees from different parts of the organization; often used for special projects.
Tall organization Organization with multiple layers of management between top executives and front-line employees.
Flat organization Organization with few layers of management between the executive level and the lowest level.
Staff Personal Personnel whose positions are typically advisory and/ or facilitative in nature.
Corporate culture The shared values, symbols, rituals, beliefs and traditions of an organization.`
Line organization Structure in which authority and responsibility move from top to bottom and each employee reports to only one manager.
Restructuring The reorganization of a company in order to achieve greater efficiency and adapt to new markets.
Centralized authority Organization structure in which decision-making and authority are concentrated at top levels of the firm.
Decentralized authority Organization structure in which authority and decision-making is delegated to lower levels of the firm.
Virtual corporation Organization structure that temporarily networks replaceable firms that join together and leave as needed.
Core competencies Those functions that the organization can do as well as or better than any other organization.
Benchmarking Comparing a firm's processes and performance to the world's best and/or best practices from other industries.
Economics of scale The increase in efficiency of production as the number of goods being produced increases.
Bureaucracy Management structure with many layers of management, a high degree of formalization and job specialization.
Formal organization Structure of an organization that is typically depicted on organization charts
Real time The actual time during which a process or event occurs
Line personal Those personnel in an organization who have direct job performance responsibilities.
Assembly process manufacturing method in which value is added by putting together components to create a product
Continuous process Manufacturing method to produce or process materials without interruption for long periods of time.
Mass customization production of personalized or custom-tailored goods or services to meet customers' individual needs
Critical path In a PERT chart, the sequence of activities that takes the longest time from start to finish
Facility location the process of determining the geographic placement of facilities to serve the firm's clients or customers
Facility layout the arrangement of machinery, equipment and people within a production facility
Quality consistent production of goods and services desired by customers that are free of defects and deficiencies
Process manufacturing manufacturing method in which value is added through physical or chemical transformation of the product
Production the creation of finished goods and services using the factors of production: land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge
telecommuting working from home via computer
flexible manufacturing manufacturing system that uses computer controlled technology to produce different goods in varying volumes
lean manufacturing manufacturing methodology based on maximizing value and minimizing waste in the manufacturing process
SPC Statistical process control method of monitoring quality through random sampling of products and plotting variances from standard
CAD computer aided design the use of computers to assist in the design and development of products
MRP materials requirement planning computerized system that uses sales forecasting in determining appropriate inventory levels of materials
ERP Enterprise resource planning computerized system that intergrates business functions such as purchasing, inventory control, sales, finance, and HR into a single database
CIM computers integrated manufacturing combining applications such as CAD, CAM and other computer systems to streamline the manufacturing process
JIT just in time inventory control inventory system in which materials and supplies are delivered when required and neither sooner nor later
CAM computer aided manufacturing the use of computers in the manufacturing of products
Statistical quality control the process some managers use to continually monitor all phases of the production process to assure that quality is being built into the product from the beginning
Production management the process of coordinating and controlling the activities required to create goods
operations management the design, execution and control of operations that convert resources into desired goods and services
form utility the value added by converting raw materials, labor, information etc. into finished products
Purchasing activities involved in obtaining required goods and services at the optimum cost and from reliable suppliers
ISO 9000 series of quality assurance standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization
ISO 14000 series of environmental management standards developed by the International Organization Standardization
PERT chart scheduling technique that identifies and sequences major activities needed to complete a project
Gantt chart graphic scheduling tool that displays what projects are in process and their stage in completion
Intermittent process a production process in which the production run is short and the machines are changed frequently to make different products

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