Chapter 3 Vocab Part Vocab for Chapter 3 Part 1 Biology

Term Definition
cell theory Theory that states that all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life.
cytoplasm Jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles.
organelle Membrane- bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell.
prokaryotic cell Cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane- bound organelles.
eukaryotic cell Cell that has a nucleus and other membrane- bound organelles.
cytoskeleton Network of proteins, such as microtubules and microfilaments, inside a eukaryotic cell that supports and shapes the cell.
nucleus (plural: nuclei) organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse the most of a cell's DNA.
endoplasmic reticulum Interconnected of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins.
ribosome Organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins.
Golgi apparatus Stack of flat, membrane- enclosed containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins.
vesicle Small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm.
mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) Bean- shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA.
vacuole Organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, and enzymes, that are needed by the cell.
lysosome Organelle that contains enzymes.
centriole Small cylinder- shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis.
cell wall Rigid structure that gives protection support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.
chloroplast Organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy; contains chlorophyll.
cell membrane Double layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls that passage of materials into and out of a cell.
phospholipid Molecule that forms a double- layer cell membrane; consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group, and two fatty acids.
fluid mosaic model Model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane.
selective permeability Condition of equality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane.
receptor Protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response.

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