Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe

Question Answer
Who was Philip I and what did he do? King of Spain, defended the catholic church, increased wealth of Spanish empire
What is an absolute monarch? A king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control every aspect of society
What is the divine right? The idea that monarchs are God’s direct earthen representatives, and He is the only one they answer to
What condition is probably most necessary for a monarch to gain power? Why? For a monarch to become an absolute ruler, there had to be a decline of feudalism. The local rulers had to weaken for one person to centralize power.
What is the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada? The English defeating the Armada weakened Spain and allowed for more Europeans to go to the Americas.
Why did the Dutch revolt against Spain? The Dutch did not have much in common with their Spanish rulers, including a difference in religion.
Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power? Absolute monarchs believed that they had the divine right. They thought that they alone were the direct representatives of God, and that they didn’t need to answer to anyone except him.
What does the art described in this section reveal about the cultures of Spain and the Netherlands? In Spain, the focus was on religion and the monarchy. In the Netherlands, merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class were in the spotlight.
What role did religion play in the struggle between the Spanish and the Dutch? Philip II thought it was his duty to defend Catholicism and tried to crush Protestantism in the Netherlands.
How did the lack of a middle class contribute to the decline of Spain's economy? There were few business people to stimulate economic growth at home or to promote trade abroad.
What is the Edict of Nantes? a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
Who was Cardinal Richelieu? Ruler of France, hard-working leader of the Catholic church in France.
What is skepticism? a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain.
Who was Louis XIV and what did he do? Model of Absolute rule. The most powerful ruler in French history, he believed he and the state were one and the same. Built himself a palace.
What is mercantilism? A system of trade based on capitalism. Exporting more than importing, produce and sell one’s own product rather than buying someone’s.
What is an intendant? a French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice.
Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert? Minister of finance, believed in and developed mercantilism
What was the War of Spanish Succession? a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon dynasty from controlling Spain as well as France.
Which events on your timeline strengthened the French Monarchy? Which weakened it? Strengthened – 1643 Louis XIV becomes king; 1661, Louis takes control of government. Weakened – 1701-1713, War of Spanish Succession
What impact did the French religious wars have on French thinkers? It turned the French thinkers toward skepticism.
How did Jean Baptiste Colbert intend to stimulate economic growth in France? He intended to stimulate economic growth in France with mercantilist policies to make France self-sufficient.
What was the result of the War of the Spanish Succession? France and Spain were not allowed to unite ; Britain gained Gibraltar; Austrian Hapsburgs took Spanish Netherlands.
Many historians think of Louis XIV as the perfect example of an absolute monarch. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. Agree- He controlled the economy, regulated worship, weakened the nobility, and built a magnificent palace to show his power.
How did the policies of Colbert and Louis XIV affect the French economy? Explain both positive and negative effects. Helped – built up and protected French industriesHurt – Drove out Huguenots and overspent on buildings and wars.
To what extent did anti-Protestantism contribute to Louis’s downfall? Cancelling the Edict of Nantes cost France many skilled workers, and wars against Protestant countries damaged the French economy.
Who was Charles I? Son of James I, next in line to rule; financial and political issues with parliament. Always at war with Spain and France; his popularity decreased by year
What was the English Civil War a conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England’s monarchy.
Who was Oliver Cromwell? Abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy; put down a rebellion almost as soon as he took the throne. Started in the military then “co-ruled” with King Charles.
What was the Restoration? the period of Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government.
What is Habeas Corpus? a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal.
What was the Glorious Revolution? the bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary.
What is a constitutional monarchy? a system of governing in which the ruler’s power is limited by law.
What is a cabinet? a group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions

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