Bio Chapter 3 vocab

Term Definition
Cell Theory all organisms are made of cells, all existing cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
Cytoplasm jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and, in some cells, organelles
Organelle membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
Prokaryotic cell cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell a cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
Cytoskeleton network of proteins, such as microtubules and microfilaments, inside a eukaryotic cell that supports and shapes the cell
Nucleus organelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for the most of a cell's DNA
Endoplasm reticulum an interconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins
Ribosome organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins
Vesicle small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm
Mitochondrion bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
Vacuole organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cell.
Lysosome organelle that contains enzymes
Centriole small cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis
Cell wall rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria
chloroplast organelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy
Cell membrane double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
Phospholipid molecule that forms a double-layered cell membrane; consists of a glycerol, a phosphate group, and two fatty acids
Fluid mosaic model describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
Selective Permeability condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane
Receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
Passive transport movement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or a gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower water concentration
isotonic solution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypertonic solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypotonic solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane
active transport energy-requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
endocytosis uptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
exocytosis release of substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane

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