Animal Behavior 5-7 Animal Behavior

Question Answer
What is Learning? A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.
What is Innate behavior? No experience required for a stimulus to elicit a response.
What is Single Stimulus Learning ? Learning involving only one stimulus.
What is Habituation? Becoming less sensitive to a stimuli over time. Ex. Getting used to a loud sound after a period of repetition
What is sensitization? Becoming more sensitive to stimuli over time. Ex. Getting progressively more annoyed at someone loudly sniffling during a play
What is associative Learning? If 2 events or stimuli are frequently paired, eventually one will elicit the other. (one gains predictive value over the other)
What is association? The process of connection events that occur close in time and space. Ex. Thunder and lightning
What is classical conditioning based on? The associative learning of 2 stimuli.
What is an Unconditioned Stimulus? (UCS) A stimulus that automatically triggers a response. Ex. Food
What is an Unconditioned Response? (UCR) An unlearned response to the UCS. Ex. Salivation to the food
What is a Neutral Stimulus? (N) A stimulus that does not produce the response in the question.
What is the Conditioned Stimulus? (CS) N that becomes associated with a UCS and therefore triggers a CR.
What is a Conditioned Response? (CR) A learned response to a CS. ex. Salivation
What is the Law of Effect? If a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened.
What is Operant Conditioning? When a response made by an animal is reinforced or punished in order to produce learning by making the animal behave.
What is Reinforcement? Any event that follows a behavior AND strengthens the behavior or makes in more likely to occur again.
What is Punishment? Any event that follows a behavior AND weakens the behavior or makes it less likely to occur again.
What is Primary Reinforcement/Punishment? An innate reward/punishment. (Biological needs) ex. Food, pain
What is Secondary Reinforcement/Punishment? A conditioned reward/punishment. Learning and association with a primary reinforcer. Ex. Money, failing a test
What is Positive Reinforcement? Providing something you like/need.
What is Negative Reinforcement? Taking away something aversive.
What is Positive Punishment? Providing something aversive.
What is a Negative Punishment? Taking away something you like/ need.
What is Shaping? A procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward a desired goal.
What is a successive approximation? A series of rewards that provide positive reinforcement for behavior changes that are successive steps towards the final desired behavior.
What kind of process is classical conditioning? A passive process.
What kind of process is operant conditioning? An active process.
In what type of conditioning must the animal behave? Operant conditioning.
In what type of conditioning are the stimuli presented to the animal? Classical conditioning.
In what type of conditioning are a response and consequence associated? Operant conditioning.
What is taste aversion? Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a food with a toxic symptom. This is only one pairing and doesn't have immediate consequences.
What is preparedness? Through evolution, animals have become biologically predisposed to learn some associations more readily than others.
What are the benefits of group learning? They learn more effectively than territorial populations through natural selection and social learning.
What is cultural transmission? The transfer of info from individual to individual through teaching or social learning. Can occur within and between generations of animals. EX.macaque stone play.
What is the evolution of learning? The ability of learning should be favored by natural selection.
What is an extinction curve? A graphical representation of the weakening and ending of an association.
What is optimal forgetting, and who experiences it? Stomatopods experience optimal forgetting. It is an optimal time to remember and then forget a mate because there is no point to remember them.
What is a behaviorist perspective of learning? Associations between stimuli and behavior and its consequences. (S-R Learning) Cannot study what occurs in the organism.
What is a cognitive perspective of learning? A mental process involved in behavior (S-O-R). Focuses on what is occurring in the organism(O).
What is latent learning? Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not displayed until reinforcement is later introduced. ( When we cannot see that learning is taking place)
What are the latent learning properties? 1. Learning occurs with no reinforcement or punishment2. Learning that occured was not observable in the absence of reinforcement
What is imprinting? Relatively sudden and irreversible form of learning that occurs only during critical periods. (A young animal recognizes an older animal or human as a parent or object of habitual trust)
What is a critical period? Restricted time period in an individual's development during which a particular form of learning can best occur. (maturational stage in a lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is sensitive to certain environment stimuli.
What is natural selection? The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
What is individual learning? The capacity to build knowledge through individual reflection to external stimuli and experience. Goes away when idividual
What is social learning? Learning via the observation of others. EX. Imo with sweet potato washing
What is local enhancement? The action of a model that draws attention to some aspect of the environment(action)
What is a mirror neuron? a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting.
Which does the Japanese macaque NOT do? Wheat washing, cracking nuts open with stones, sweet potato washing, stone play. They do not crack nuts open on stones.
What is social facilitation? The presence of a model, requardless of what it does thought to facilitate learning in the observer. (presence of model)
What does social learning include? Benefits, imitation,copying, teaching, types of cultural transmission.
What are some benefits of social learning? More efficent than trial and error. Some complex behaviors cannot be learned without social learning.
What is imitation? The acquisition of a *topographically novel* response through observation of a demonstrator making that response.
What is copying? When an observer repeats what he has seen a model do. ( Does not require what is being copied to be a topographically novel behavior)
What is teaching? A behavior that occurs when one individual serves as an instructor and at least one individual acts as a student.
what are the 3 main point of teaching? Immediate benefit to another and not oneself, Naive students, impart new info to the student faster than they would have gained it on their own.
Who does teaching often occur between? Parent and offspring.
What is opportunity teaching? Teachers actively place students in a situation conducive to learning a new skill or aquiring knowledge.
What is coaching? A teacher directly altering the behavior of students by encouragemetn or punishment
What is teaching like in meerkats? Young pups are assisted by older helpers. The helpers act as teachers presenting the naive pups with scorpions with their stings removed. teaching depended on by begging calls of the pups.
What is vertical cultural transmisson? Cultural transmission in which info is passed directly from parents to offspring.
What is horizontal cultural transmission? Cultural transmission in which info is passes across individuals of the same age or peer group. EX>with the exception of her mother all indivduals learned potato washing through peer or young close relatives of imo
What is oblique cultural transmission? A for of cultural transmission in which info is passed across generations, but not from parent to offspring. EX. Rhesus monkeys during snake trials
Which relative does the cultrual tranmisson of the song bird come from? The father
What is asexual reproduction? reproduction which does not involve meiosis or fertilization. EX> budding
What is parthenogenisis? found in females, where growth and development of embyos occurs without fertilization by a male. EX> female whiptail lizards cross their chromosomes
What are the 3 costs of sex? cost of meiosis, courtship and mating, risk of disease from partner.
What is the cost of meiosis? The reduction in numbers of alleles passed on. It's economically impractical. any off spring will only have 50% of make up while asexual will have 100%.
What is the risk of courtship and mating? separate structures must evolve, sexual behavior, vulnerability.
what are the benefit of sex? Aapted to current and changing environment and diversity percent. (Changes in environment: climate, resources, disease.)
What are the downfalls of axesual? adapted to current environment and no diversity.
What is isogamy? gametes are equal in size
What is anisogamy? female gamete (ovum) is larger than male gamete(sperm)
What is a disruptive selection? evolution of the extreme forms of a trait. (extreme values of a trait are favored over intermediate values)
What is bateman's principle? Since eggs require greater energy to produce than sperm and female reproductive success is limited compared to males, Females should be the choosier sex. This should result in greater variance in reproductive success of males.
What is sexual selection? Selection in relation to mating. (differs from natural selection) Evolution of anatomical and behavior traits that affect an idivi. ability to acquire mates.
What is intersexual selection? Individuals of one sex choose which individuals of the other sex to take as mates ( usually females choosing males) Usually females choosing among males.
What is intrasexual selection? members of one sex compete with eachother for access to the other sex. (usually males competing with eachother for females)
What is fecundity? The ability to producean abundance of offspring or new growth; fertility
What is the direct benefits model? females choose mates that provide them with resources that increase their fecundity. (Resources: food, shelter, territory, parental care, predator protection)
Ex. of Direct benefits scorpionfly nuptial gift ( the bigger the prey size, the longer duration of copulation)
What is sexual suicide in redback spider? The male tranfers sperm while the female eats them. Females are less likely to mate with another male, so the male fertilizes more eggs.
What is the good genes model? Female choose males that posess traits that are good indicators of good health and vigor. ( traits that are best suited to their particular environment)
What indirect benefits does the female receive from the good genes model? Their offspring recieve some of the good genes that led their mother to chose a male as a mate in the first place.
What are the 4 rules of the good gene model? 1. Males should differ genetically related to their fitness 2. Male behavior should provide accurate info on the fitness of male's genes 3. Females should use this info to select partners 4. mothers offspring should benefit from their mothers mate choice
What is an indicator trait? traits that provide info to members of the oppisite sex about the health or fitness of the bearer.
What is an honest indicator? The idea that traits that are costly to produce are more difficult to fake and truly indicate the "genetic quality" of an individual.
Ex> good gene honest indicators The widowbird and peacock handicap hypothesis
Ex > good genes and indicator traits Barn swallows> males exposed to mites have shorter tails, males with longer tails have lower parasite loads and produce offspring with lower loads…longer tailed males are preferred
What is symmetry? A measure of the similarity of the left and right sides of the body
What is developmental stability? A measure of how well an organism handles changing environments as it matters.
What is runaway sexual selection? The genes for a preference in the female and the genes for prefered traits in males become genetically linked.
What can runaway sexual selection result in? arbitary traits
What are arbitrary traits? based on random choice or whim rather than a system
What begins the process of runaway sexual selection? Any preexisting preference of sensory stimulation by females can begin the process
Ex> runaway secual selection Stalk-eyed fly, water boatman
Who inherits what trates in runaway sexual selection? Son inherits trait that makes them attractive to females. Daughter inherits mate preference and produces son with the attractive trait.
What is sensory exploitation? females may initially prefer male traits that elicit the greatest amount of stimulation from their sensory systems, also known as sensory bias or preexisting bias ( sometimes traits dont even exist yet)
Ex> sensory exploitation primate preference for red
What is a sensory bias? Females initially prefer male traits that greatly stimulated their sensory systems (males 'tap into' female bias)
What is sexual dimorphism? distinct differences in size or appearance between the sexes of an animal in the same species in addition to difference between the sexual organs themselves
EX sexual dimophism> elk male have horns, femals dont> female reindeer have smaller horns thatn male reindeer
Ex sexual dimorphism> Mandrills
What is a Monogamous species? No sexual dimorphism ( seals, titis, marmoset
Who preforms male-male competition before mating? Baboons, macaca thibetana ( baboons who are more dominant produce more offspring as well as elephant seals)
What is the parental male alternate mating strategy? Make nest-attract female, female spawns, fertilizes eggs, cares for eggs
What is the sneaker males alternate mating strategy? Smaller males> dart in and fertilizes eggs
What is a satellite male alternate mating strategy? Resembles females and fertilizes eggs while parental male courts an actual female.
Ex alternate mating strateges> Bluegill sunfish
What are the alternate mating strategies in the marine isopods? Alpha males- exclude other males from sponge cavities containing females.Beta males- act like females and are courted, gaining mating access to real femals, Gamma males- avoid alpha but sneak in to fertilize females
What is a conditional strategy? A set of rule that provides for different tactics under different environmental conditions; the inherited behavioral capacity to be flexible in the response to certain cues or situations
What happens if there is a genetic strategy? Behavioral diff. should occur between types. Mating success should be about equal.
What happens if there is a conditional strategy? Behavioral differences should be induced by the envirn., not genetics. Mating success should not necessarily be equal.
What was the purpose of gracia's rat experiment? Conditioned taste aversion
How did garcia set up the experiment? 2 groups ( tastey and bright noisy water) subgroups got nauseua and shock.
What did garcia find in his experiment? rats could associate tasty water with nausea induced from x-rays but not with electric shock.
What concept does garcias experiment demonstrate? preparedness

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