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The 4 ancient river valley civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus and china
Mesopotamia Greek for "land between two rivers" Between Tigris and EuphratesRiver flooded at least once a year Unpredictable Little natural barriers to offer protection from invaders Limited natural resources promoted trade
Pyramids on the Nile "The gift of the Nile"- predictable flooding Deserts on both sides of the Nile served as a natural barriers to invaders Reduced interactions with others Over 4,000 miles long, flowing from south to north
Indus Flat plain formed by two rivers- the Indus and Ganges Natural barriers of the Himalayas and the Hindu lush mountains offered protection Seasonal winds called monsoons Unpredictable floods, wet and dry season
Dynasties in china Natural barriers isolated china from all other civilizations Pacific Ocean to the east, desert to the west, Himalayan mountains to the southeast.Two main rivers-huang -he (yellow river) and Yangtze 90% of land suitable for farming between these river
Sumer is divided into city states with individual governments
Momarchies Divided into city states with individual governments.
Military leaders Became full time rulers and eventually passed power down to their sons
Because rivers flooded unpredictably Irrigation ditches were needed to carry water to their field
Architecture/technology Sumerians built ziggurats which were temples to the gods Technology achievements include,the wheel,the sail and the plow
Religion First organized religion: Sumerians believed That many gods controlled the forces of nature Polytheism is the belief in many gods
System of writing First to develop a writing system Cuneiform- wedges in clay tablets Used for record keeping, communication Later the phoenicians brought their alphabet to Mesopotamia. We call it the phonetic alphabet,our Latin alphabet was influenced by it.
Law and order Babylonians: conquered this region developed first codes of law.Code of Hammurabi: stressed the idea of "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth"Very harsh set of lawsKept order and stability in society
Ancient Egypt Nile river Flooding was predictable Provided siltDeveloped system of irrigation ditches Nile was a highwayWrote on papyrus
Indus River valley civilization Valley developed along the Indus and Ganges rivers Himalayas and Hindu Kush were natural barriers Relied on monsoons or seasonal winds to bring rain to water crops Mohenjo daro and Harrapa Public sewer systems supported 30,000 people Well planed citi
Ancient china Yellow riverFlooded unpredictable Called China's Sorrow because when it flooded dams sometimes broke and killed crops causing starvation Polytheistic Oracle bones I
The Zhou dynasty Group of people claiming ancestry to the Zhou family marched out of their kingdom on the western frontier to over throw the Shang. Promoted the idea of the Mandate of Heaven
Mary Leakey She is an anthropologist. Her and her Husband discovered Lucy,. The oldest skeleton in east Africa.
Hammurabi's code First set of written laws/ harsh: eye for an eye,tooth for a tooth
Nile river: why was it important, how was it used by people? It was predictable and it was used for transportation and irrigation
Papyrus Paper like substance used by Egyptians
Natural barriers of Egypt Eastern/western desert/ Mediterranean/ red sea
Civilization: traits of a civilization Advanced cities specialization, advanced technology
Hunter gatherers Hunt/gather food, nomadic (constantly moving) 20-30 people
Neolithic revolution Major turning point. New Stone Age. Surplus of food leading up to civilizations.
What does society need before it can grow? Surplus of food
Cultural diffusion The spreading of ideas and practices from one culture to another, usually spread through trade.
Indus River valley cities: what makes them unique? They had a sewer systems and water supply that supported 30,000 people, grid pattern and oven baked bricks.
Maurya empire: india First empire in India. India urban planning (grid system).
City-state City and surrounding land functions that are one political
Delta Marsh land formed by deposits of silt at mouth(end) of river.
Fertile Crescent
Arc of rich farm land between Mediterranean and Persian gulf
Feudalism System where nobles granted land in return for loyalty
Gilgamesh First written poem
Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing system that uses pictures to represent ideas and sounds
Irrigation Bringing water to crops by ditches or canals
Pharaohs Gods, kings
Polytheism Beliefs in many gods
Silt Fertile land deposited during flood
Sumer Civilizations in Mesopotamia
Slash and burn Cut trees and grass than burn
Monsoons Winds that shift direction at certain times of the year

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